Position:Electronics Blog Microchip PIC Circuits Projects Tens Electronic Muscle Stimulation Device Circuit with PIC16F84

Tens Electronic Muscle Stimulation Device Circuit with PIC16F84

PIC16F84 electronic Kas Uyarım Cihazı

Television for a period, Frequently electronic muscle stimulation device radio advertising saw the state of the PIC16F84 microcontroller gerçekleştirilimiş I used to be very similar to the device onarmıştım had a microcontroller pic16f series and the circuit is very simple example of a useful in medical electronics circuit diagram of the, There are drawings and source codes pcb picc.



Prepared: Arif KOÇOĞLU Thanks to those who contributed to preparing

In this study, integrated circuits and micro-checks from known electronic muscle stimulation device consisting programmable designed. The method used in this study is a method of TENS. This method is a method of transdermal muscle and nerve stimulation. In this method, the nerves and muscles, electrodes through the skin, stimulated by electrical currents using different frequency and intensity of. The aim is to prevent the transmission of pain modulation excitation nerve connections.

To make the motor points of the muscles in the waves of muscle contraction to apply to. TENS called endorphins, a natural analgesic and sedative effects when used method consists of secreted. This method is physiotherapy; muscle contractions, ensure that coming loose, relieve pain, Is one of the alternative methods used to provide sedative effect.

Frequency of the circuit is designed with micro controllers, Set the output current to determine the duration and the intensity of the current is possible to determine for every patient. The type and nature of the wave are presented on the LCD screen as the user information.

Pain first modulation and TENS metotları explained. Then the intended block diagram, The working principle of the circuit diagram and the circuit will be explained. In the last part with some of the results and recommendations are described in the operation and future developments that may.

Symbols and Abbreviations: Some of the icons and abbreviations used in this study, are presented below, along with descriptions of.

tens kisaltmalar_simgeler

History of electrotherapy

Elektroterapi, for diagnosis and treatment is the use of electrical agents. The use of electricity as a means of treating dates back to the ancient Greek and Egyptian;

Greek scholar and electric fish vibrations of Aetius glove used in the treatment of gout. Magnetized medicine scholar living in the Middle Ages, Paracelsus (magnet) bodies believed to be good for all treatments. However, this speeds Queen Elizabeth’ in doktoru Dr.. William Gilbert’ in 1600 published in “The Magnette” His book has aroused considerable interest.

1780 Galvani, Professor in the University of Bologna, frog's leg muscle, the effect of electricity (gastroknemius) kasıldığını seen and as a result, electricity, only said that the animal's tissues. After that, the Italian scientist Alessandro Volta nature, not only for electricity and animal tissues 1800 Volta invented the battery in. Galvani and Volta thus formed the basis for electrotherapy. The first book of 1745 by the German Fiziatrisi electrotherapy Kratzenstein′Published in.

Paris’ has recommended the use of electricity for muscle contraction Jallabert with kıvılcımlanmasının. Marat, habit, hemiplegia, and has authored several books for the use of electricity in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Hemifumarate how certain period of drug treatment must be filed, electricity can also be given a certain time Volt required.

The first physiotherapy department 1840 Dr. in. London by Golding’ daki ‘Guy’ hospital Volt opened as electrotherapy department. After the discovery by Faraday induction coil Electrophysiology, faradic and galvanic stimulation of muscles and nerves of current laws 19. Du-century French BoisRaymond, Developed by Duchenne and Erb. American (Michigan) John H. Sinusoidal currents used by Kellogg muscle stimulation.

By Tesla in 1892 after the discovery of high-frequency currents′used in the treatment by the D'Arsonval. Diathermy 20. In the tenth century, first discovered by the German Zeynek and Nagelschnidt New York for medical purposes, and F. The Power, for surgical purposes Philadelphialı developed by Clark.

Short-wave diathermy American Schereschewsky, Witney and Volt discovered by the German Schliepake. Small wave diathermy (micro dalga diathermy), modeled radar used in time of war by the British scientist Sir Arthur Tisdale “Microwave” With the development of the tube were called.

Tens App

The main purpose of this study through the skin electrical muscle nerve stimulator unit to realize the design and implementation of. First, however, the perception of pain, The material used for the excitation methods and methods that can be used DÜEKSU units introduced is intended to provide background information on the topic.

Nowadays, hard and long-term pain in practice for a long term in a state analgesic, alternative method is used because of the risk of damage to the kidney or liver, skin-mounted electric nerve stimulation, physical therapy as it is known that TENS Unit use. The method of electric current, the electrodes to stimulate the nerves under the skin, through the skin with the help of the method of transmission. This technique then “Transkutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation” referred to as TENS which stands for.

Skin over the muscles used in electrical nerve stimulation (DÜEKSU) with a very good success rate of the method regularly used in the reduction or elimination of pain. Today, in the form of an electric current is used quite widely TENS.

Matches on direct current produces a short-term TENS The skin over the muscle electrical nerve stimulation devices for the first 1919 has been used in. The first time through electrodes placed on the skin, Wall and Sweet peripheral electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves that temporarily improved as a result of chronic pain reported.

Before either of these types of electrical currents, efforts were made to reduce the pain, and those who follow a very different shapes used in electrical. They are very similar to the observed effect, but over time many of them have been abandoned at, sinusoidal current, and it is only on the changes made have been obtained from the diadynamic currents continue to be used for pain control.

TENS stimulation through the skin, peripheral nerves can be explained as. Used for the purpose of treatment is to eliminate or alleviate the aches and pains. This alerts the brain secretes endorphins, natural pain when we do not have to play as pain reduction or elimination of agents will perform.

In the external environment of the brain and body electrical stimulated capable of understanding and interpreting. TENS devices produced by some of the current forms and information on central nervous system, especially when large changes in pain sensitivity may focuses on.

TENS electrodes placed on the skin over the nerve system controlled by applying a low-voltage electrical current is carried. TENS’ has increased in importance in the development of pain treatment with electric current through. Originally TENS, as a method of pain control directly to stimulate the nerves of the dorsal column stimulator is made as a byproduct of electricity developed dorsal column.

This stimulator surgically inserted into the body. TENS is developed as a non-invasive technique is adequate in most patients in reducing pain without the need for surgical intervention, such as dorsal column stimulator is.

1965′of pain by Melzack and Wall “Gate Control Theory” Following the identification of electrical currents through the reduction of pain research with great interest, and his treatment of TENS heard and seen large increases in the use of.

TENS’ There are so many applications that are currently in.. Is safe and effective in treating pain, and “The Food and Drug Administration” (FDA) After receiving the approval of TENS and various diseases caused by the surgical procedure used for acute and chronic pain. According to FDA regulation of medical device use TENS II. between-class devices.

So the distribution and implementation of the patient must be made by a licensed physician. U.S.’ national standards for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators were also(1985). Accordingly, the primary indication for TENS is defined as follows:”Symptomatic control of the management and treatment of chronic pain, or as adjunctive therapy and post-operatively as well as post-traumatic and acute pain is used to treat.

In many countries today are produced in our country and TENS devices for the treatment of clinical and home. TENS devices produce the correct stream of positive asymmetric biphasic square waves and negative spinous, Matches on monophasic and biphasic square-shaped square still widely used. They are most common in symmetric or asymmetric balanced, biphasic square wave. More asymmetric square wave output electrodes are used to give the polarity.

TENS waveforms obtained from different types of

TENS types of wave

a) Bifazik kare dalga
b) Asymetric bifazik positive square glass negative dikensi dalga
c) Monofazik kare dalga

Leather top of the neural matching, intended to prevent the transmission of nerve endings through. Thus, the brain does not recognize pain signals. TENS’ in the exercise, An alternative cause for the reduction of pain, creates endorphins alert. Endorphins are hormones secreted by the body, suffered devastating natural substances. TENS’ in productivity, believed that this method will depend on the patient's injured. This method has been used by many physiotherapists.

Working under the general information

Theories of Pain and Pain

The use of electricity as a therapeutic tool goes back to the ancient Greek and Egyptian, even in the time of Caesar “torpedo” electrical discharges of fish “good” and “headache” told is used in the treatment of.

Studies in the future in the field of medicine and medical electronic researched alternative methods of treatment of pain electrical devices have been developed and used for physical therapy.

The main purpose of electrical devices used for physical therapy and physical therapy to reduce the patient's suffering. Cause of suffering in pain often. Therefore how the pain felt, transmitted and how it is perceived by the brain known.

Pain; person in order to avoid destruction of tissue inducing a protective mechanism to create an appropriate answer. Although there are some theories about the formation of most of the pain Melzack and Wall’ the gate control theory.

Door Control System Mechanism

Gate control theory of pain those that are adhering to the medulla spinalisdeki afferent neural mechanism is based on increasing or decreasing. Noniseptif for spinal cord stimulation may be submitted in two ways:

1-Slow forwards, unmyelinated C fiber through a: Unmyelinated C-fibers are very thin very low transmission rate. Small D. R.. Group C fibers and some receptors are present in the back and peripheral nervous root pain, pressure, bring the temperature information. Contain both types of fibers, then the potential for action potential sC, There is potential depolarisations group drC fibers.

2-Faster, A delta through a myelinated fiber: A lifler types, kapsarlarsa wide ranges of diameters and transmission speeds are also quite a homogeneous group in terms of form.

Both of them will enter the spinal cord in the back way. Both types of fiber of a particular message is thought to be the highest frequency. Second for C fiber 15 impact; A delta fibers per second for 40 blow to the proposed. A higher frequency is applied, prevents the passage of the message block is suggested as a physiological.

TENS devices such as the desired effect can be obtained by using a frequency of this level. The anatomical structure of the theory; A large-scale- delta, A small-scale- fibers, laminae I and II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord associated with the substantia gelatinosa (S.G.) Located in the central part of the dorsal horn cells and transmission (T cells) provides. A- delta and C fibers in a planned way, and both T cells and synapses with the substantia gelatinosa.

A gelatinous Substansiya- File C delta lifleri (afferent) and regulatory T cells with the extensions on the presynaptic (door control) acts as. Neurophysiological called presynaptic inhibition control mechanism is formed by.

A large-scale carrying the sensation of pain- further notes that the substantia delta fibers are fasihte gelatinosayı. Thus, SG’ The T cells, inhibiting increases warnings. Door closing action and reduced ignition system to prevent the passage of painful stimuli. A small diameter fibers is more stimulated SG’ suppressed the activity of the control reduced presynaptic, opens the door to painful stimuli.
Gate control theory of Melzack and Wall, as a regulator, play a role as a mechanism, demonstrated that post-synaptic inhibition of. Some of the neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system is stimulated vigorously endogenous analgesic substances such as endorphins enkafalin and play a role in reducing pain revealing.

Muscle contraction and muscle strengthening:

TENS, large-diameter afferent nerve fibers (A - delta lifleri) stimulation of the skin in order to reduce the pain of different electrodes to apply an electric current that the tool. Faradic used for physical therapy, sinusoidal, diadinamik, interferansiyel, Russian (Kotz), TENS stimulators containing discrete high-voltage currents’ lerdir. However, many physical therapist stimulator TENS units smaller than the other, and both prefer to carve out the battery to work. A system designed for the modulation of pain and muscle spasm of the types of wave movements of a type that has a.

Designed using the system will be able to run the desired muscle group.

Materyal've Metod

Leather Top Electrical Nerve Stimulation Methods

TENS devices are manufactured in two types of clinical and portable. Clinical portables devices, while the output of five to ten units in the output channel is two more than the number. Give a more uniform exit flow characteristics in terms of clinical devices. All current modulation types are.

Moreover, these devices facilitate the work of physiotherapists direction also contain some additional circuitry. Timer, alarm, Arrangements are many devices such as rotation, at least one-touch terminals.

TENS clinic devices operate with mains. As will the majority of the flow of conventional TENS devices and portable 9 In’ work with the battery hood.

TENS devices can be two or more other output channels. Thus, the current applied to multiple regions.

The system, designed for the single-channel type in the trial phase. Current types of devices are able to provide both clinical and portable. Here, from the output of the device is designed in four different types of wave, physiological effects and duration of implementation is described.

Conventional (Traditional) Method

The most widely used type. This treatment is used in the form of low-intensity but high frequency information. Frequency 50 to 100 Hz, time 40-75 ms, A current density values ​​between 10-30 m. These values ​​are based on patients without excessive discomfort, can be adjusted so as to form a slight tingling. As a result of studies on the most effective frequency of pain 60 Speed ​​is determined as. This means that large-diameter afferent nerve fibers that (A-alfa, beta lifleri) chronic pain, reduced form of deep pain stimulation. The mechanism of the door relative to the spine pain relief feature. Figure 3.1 Sample output of the conventional TENS(monofazik) expressed in.

Conventional TENS 's effect starts fast, application 10-15. minutes the pain is reduced, Shortly after cessation of treatment are lost. Anesthesia obtained three hours after the treatment can continue. Duration of treatment 30 dk’ may take from a few hours.

Conventional TENS output representative of the (monofazik )

Acupuncture (Powerful low-speed) Method

Here, long-term use powerful electric currents and rhythmic muscle contractions are obtained. High amplitude and low frequency is used. Frequency 1-10 Hz, 200-300 ms pulse duration, between 50-60 mA current density values. A representative for the wave monophasic waveform shown by the method of acupuncture.

Monophasic waveform representative of the acupuncture method

The intensity is set to the value of the patient can tolerate, and often visible muscle contractions occur. With this method, high-threshold unmyelinated C nerve fibers and causes the secretion of the hormone endorphin enkafalin efferent motor fibers are stimulated, and this is considered in which the pain-relieving effect. This type of stinging pain deep with those who follow 20 with 30 decreases in minutes. Similar to acupuncture, relaxation obtained kine, 6 This continues until time. Treatment time is usually 30-60 minutes.

Short Intensive Impact Method

TENS’ In this form of treatment used in both the quantity and high frequency stimulation. For the monophasic waveform obtained by the method of short intense effect is observed, a waveform is representative of.

Monofazik dalga(representative of the) domain method for short intense

Frequency 100-150 Hz, 150-250 ms time, current density is increased until the patient can tolerate. This is the maximum level of amplitude of contraction of muscle contraction that creates. As a result patients 15 dk. that a strong and persistent numbness, paresthesia and analgesia is achieved, but it does not last long. Therefore desired not be achieved by reducing the voltage and duration matching “Traditional Method” switches.

Hyperstimulation Method

This method is high frequency,, opposed to high-intensity stimulation by activating C-fibers creates an undesirable situation. A method must be based on a strong warning Volt given short. Frequency 50-150 Hz, the width of the wave 100-200 microseconds’ you. Amplitude, or the patient can tolerate significant intensity tetanic muscle contraction is set up. Flammable character matching the skin without causing muscle spasms and creates a sharp. hyperstimulation a representative waveform is obtained by the method of TENS.

Hyperstimulation Method

Table 'is usually applied to the corresponding frequency TENS current varieties, provides information about the width and amplitude of the wave.

Applied Flow Types


Electrotherapy devices such as TENS 1 mA 1 In’ corresponds to. Because the resistance of the human body 1 KΩ accepted. An electro-therapy device max. 80 In’ be able to blow hood.
If the system is designed in four different calculations for the current.

Conventional Wave Type: 60 Hz, 50 ms made the calculation.

  • 1/60=0,0166 sn
  • 0,0166 sn= 16666 microseconds
  • 50 ms warnings.
  • 16666 microseconds- 50 No warning ms = 16616 ms.

Acupuncture dalga Tipi: 4 Hz, 200 ms made the calculation.

  • 1/4=0,25 sn
  • 0,25 sn= 25000 microseconds
  • 200 ms warnings.
  • 25000 microseconds- 200 No warning ms = 24980 ms.

Hiperstimulasyon Dalga Tipi: 100 Hz, 150 ms made the calculation.

  • 1/100=0,01 sn
  • 0,01 sn= 10000 microseconds
  • 150 ms warnings.
  • 10000 microseconds- 150 No warning ms = 9850 ms.

Intensive Short-Wave Type of Impact: 150 Hz, 200 ms made the calculation.

  • 1/150=0,0066 sn
  • 0,0066 sn= 6666 microseconds
  • 200 ms warnings.
  • 6666 microseconds- 200 No warning ms = 6466 ms.

As a result of the calculation based on the values ​​in the system produces a square wave.

The electrodes used in

Types of electrodes are used to treat a wide variety of electro-therapy. Electrodes of different shapes and sizes. What is wanted is a powerful pain-avoidance and not to increase stimulation electrodes 4 cm2 should not be smaller than. Current conducting electrodes, cables, be negative or positive polarity connection will be prompted to specify a different color. These colors are mainly red and black.

Current is applied between the electrodes to the region and provide a better impedance matching gel applied to the expulsion of the stream, or to avoid loss of the electrode surfaces electrodes wet sponge pads should be used to. Speaks with the desired type and size of the system designed electrodes be used

Used in the gel between the electrodes and the skin. The following figure shows the system to be used in special electrodes had done.

The electrodes used in

A TENS device to connect to their bodies that operated more impact than the other side of the pole is red. However, the reason for this red pole plus (+) is not that, the negative terminal of the pole is because it sends the electron.

Designed System

I designed the system; four different pre-programmed waveform with the help of electro-therapy treatment is possible to apply the electrodes to the patient flow. If the amplitudes of the waves at the desired level by means of a potentiometer is provided to.

To select the type of the current system, a microprocessor: PIC used 16f84A. Optionally flow will thus be possible to program types. In this embodiment; Hiperstimulasyon, Acupuncture, Conventional, Short-intensive type of effect to be given in four different flow.

System for supply 220V AC ~ 20 V AC transformer is used. For power transformer 24 In, For PIC and LCD display 12 Hood V outputs are used.

PIC tetiklenen transistor, The current generated is transferred to the patient through the electrodes to trigger transformer and the transformer. Section of the circuit is operating logic 4.5. Working Principle of the circuit at the, described give a detailed.

Parts used in


Circuit Block Diagram

The most important parts of the circuit block diagram of the circuit is;

• PIC: 16f84A
• Power supply: 220V ~ 24V Transformer
• Güç trafosu: 3,300 private-fall 1200
• LCD: 2X16 LCD Screen
• Elektrotlar: Klasik 5x5 Electricity terapi Elektrotları
• Transistor

The logic of the circuit operation is described in the block diagram with arrows.

Circuit Block Diagram

Circuit diagram


Multisim circuit diagram of the system 7.0 and isis 6.0 drawn with. In the figure above, the drawing made with multisim program.

Printed Circuit Diagrams

Proteus 6.0 Professional using the Ares program, drew a diagram of the circuit pressure. This is the circuit diagrams and printing and print circuit only did I get. First seen in the circuit elements. In the second form Volt removed and the printed circuit board circuit elements ready to print in full has been made.

tens_baski_devrepcb tens_baski_devre_2

Devre micro Control Ünitesi

At wave generator using PIC 16f84A, for four different wave frequencies, pulse durations calculated by the program code is written in C and Pic. Written C code, C side of the IC prog pic brought Hex format. PIC program to the program has been. This is the code to select the program code and data selected from the range of the wave can be seen on the LCD screen. The program is programmed to do easily add the desired new wave for a variety of.

Circuit Principle of Operation

I designed the circuit, different frequencies, a system that implements the desired amplitude square wave to the patient through the electrodes. The designed device from the power supply, part of the wave form generator and trigger.

Power Supply

The first part of the power supply section of the circuit feeding. In this section, the power to activate the city Volt şebeksinden. 220 V AC voltage transformer for 24V and 12V to reduced. Required for power transformer 20 volts required for PIC and LCD 5 whether the values ​​obtained in this section is switched volt. After the transformer circuit, separated by a button on the main power line safety has been an important. From the transformer 24 was, 1N4007 diyot ve 3300 μF capacitor with 35V rectified and about 25 V value Volt obtained as DC. Required 20 V with the LM317 adjustable voltage regulator 20 Volt has been the level of. To other sections 5 V itself 7805 voltage regulator is provided with. High current withdrawal times 7805 measures have been taken to avoid overheating of the cooling plate and the integration of the.

Wave Generator:

The second part is the part of the PIC and LCD display. Device on the LCD screen when you open the "Select Type of current?"Appears on the. Key programmed with four different waveform is selected. 'More' button once the red LED will light up and all when we 'ok' button, the selection process will be completed by. Thus, the PIC will get the desired command, and it will give you the appropriate square wave output.

It is also the first line of the display name of the selected waveform, frequency information and time will print on the second line. If at any time the 'reset' button to reset and re-election to the state of the program geçilebilinir. Select more than four times the selection button is pressed while, on the 'wrong choice, please wait', and will post again after five seconds the selection will allow a time. We also put in place for the LCD display screen with tripod that it is possible to adjust the contrast to make the optional.

Part of the trigger:

In this section, the PIC from the power transistor 2N3055 is a square wave signal from the trigger and the trigger will cause the power transformer is transferred, the transformer supplying the 20 V transformer with approximately 55 You kidding frames will be obtained at a value around V. Wave transformer is obtained from the patient via a potentiometer is applied to electrodes. Thus, the value of a suitable voltage according to each patient, creating waves of disturbance levels to obtain treatment.

Conclusions and Recommendations

In this study, I want to do my research for the study of electronic muscle stimulating device is primarily used in TENS devices for electrotherapy and other similar techniques is based on the modulation of different movements, and many have learned to use. I got my project primarily addressed the issue of pain modulation and muscle contraction. This modulation voltage applied to the variable parameters, I learned frequency and pulse duration should be. And redesigned to make changes on these three parameters of the circuit is a circuit I noticed.

Triggered by a transistor controls the voltage transformer and the density of micro-, an adjustable pulse duration and frequency of the electrical muscle stimulation device designed transdermal, I did the calculations of frequency and pulse duration to the appropriate waveforms available in four different waveforms that can design and performed the.

Unlike electro-therapy devices available in the market and I designed a portable device, as well as easily been download waveform is fluent in many clinical devices. We have programmed in four different fashion. These modes may be used in the treatment of pain in both muscle contraction and with.

Will be sudden changes in the system does not allow the selection of the wave in terms of patient safety. Box job in terms of unit tests can be performed in the future with other patient safety.

I designed the system and choose to print the waveform selection key to select the value of the LED can be seen burning. Also offered as a choice of information to the user on the LCD screen.

This study Volt prompted batteries or mains power sources external to the kullanılabilinmesi, very small variations in the power supply will be held at the.

If the system is designed using the indications and contraindications.

Generally, To summarize indications itemized:

• Pain modulation
• patients with paralyzed muscle contraction
• Muscle strengthening
• Drug / ions transferi

Where the application is inconvenient for electrotherapy, Contraindications parts of the body and is.

• Pacemaker, patients with pacemakers
• on the carotid sinus,
• Pregnancy
• Cerebral vascular problems
• If the patient is sick of heart, inconvenient to use on top of the rib cage.

Applied to the front and back parts of the electro-therapy of muscle groups in Annex 1 and Annex 2, is given in. Details of the motor points of the muscles also Appendix 4 'The figures shown.

Used in physical therapy, electro therapy as a result of my research I've been aware of. Give rise to a design of electronic problems and how to deal with problems in a way that I learned to watch. Electronic components found in ensuring the efficient use of those parts of. I learned to use in a coordinated manner with the hardware and software parts of the. We also have information about the construction of printed circuit board printed circuit board, and I've been drawing. Besides the cost of the market prices of devices designed my site to be a small amount of another advantage of the design.

As a result, to allow selection of four different wave types, the display shows the selected mode in the design and electro-therapy has been performed. Çalışmalımda further investigate the effects of different wave types, human physiological system and to determine the shape of the wave, I think is right for the right treatment.

Written PIC Code

#include <16F84A.h>
#use delay(clock=4000000)
#include <mertinlcd.c>

void main()
int i=0;
cd_putc("\f Achim Tipi Sec?");
if(!input(pin_A1))      //value of i is determined to choose from.
i  ;
delay_ms(250);       //bolum sonu
if(!input(pin_A2))  //in secim degerine do 4 Delivery kinds are.
if(i==1)  //i = 1 hoisted konvansiyonel dalga sekli
lcd_putc("Konvansiyonel  n 60 Hz / 50 microseconds ");
if(i==2)//i = 2 ise akapunktur dalga sekli
lcd_putc("Akapunktur\n 4 Hz / 250 microseconds");
if(i==3)  //i = 3 waveform hyperstimulation
lcd_putc("Hiperstimulasyon  n 100 Hz / 150 microseconds");
if(i==4)  //i = 4, the short-intensive domain waveform
lcd_putc("Short Intensive Impact  n 150 Hz / 200 microseconds");

At the front of the application areas of the body

At the back of the application areas of the body

Motor Points of Muscles

Facial Motor Points

Arm Front Area Motor Points

Shoulder and back Rear Area Power Points

Area Engine runs the front leg


1] Sabri Kocer, M. Rahmi Canal & Inan Guler, Design of Low-Cost General Purpose Microcontroller Based Neuromuscular Stimulator, Journal of Medical Systems, Flight. 24, Not. 2, 2000

[2] Dr. Nihal PT Lightning, Electricity Terapi Ders Notları, Baskent University Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ankara,2003

[3] A jader. De Lima and Adriano S. Lamb, A Low-Cost Neurostimulator With Accurate Pulsed-Current Control, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, FLIGHT. 49, NO. 5, 497, MAY, 2002

[4] Erik A. Cheever, Member, IEEE, Dirk R. Thompson, Brian L. Cmolik,
William P. Santamore, and David T. George,* Member IEEE, A Versatile Microprocessor-Based Multichannel Stimulator for Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Assist, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, FLIGHT. 45, NO. 1, JANUARY,1998

[5] Orhan Altınbaşak, Pic microcontrollers programming, Gold Virgo Publishing, February 2003

[6] Robert L.Boylestad, Loui Nashelsky, Electronic Devices and Circuit Theorty, Eight Edition

[7] KENZO AKAZAWA, MASAAKI MAKIKAWA, JIRO KAWAMURA, AND HIDEKI AOKI, Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation System Using an Implantable Hydroxyapatite Connector and a Microprocessor-Based Portable Stimulator, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, FLIGHT. 36, NO. 7. JULY,1989

[8] Michael J. Callaghan, PhD, Jacqueline A. Oldham, PhD, Electric Muscle Stimulation of the Quadriceps in the Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain, Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, June, 2004

[9] DIRK Pette, MD ve GERTA Vrbova ', MD WHAT DOES CHRONIC ELECTRICAL STIMULATION TEACH US ABOUT MUSCLE PLASTICITY?, 1 Faculty of Biology, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany, 2 Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, UK Accepted 11 February, 1999

[10] MICHAEL S. YOUNG, MD, and WILLIAM J. TRIGGS, MD, EFFECT OF STIMULATOR ORIENTATION ON F-WAVE PERSISTENCE, Department of Neurology, University of Florida College of Medicine, 25 December, 1997

[11] Robert G. Dennis, Douglas E. Dow b,c,d, John A. Faulkner, An implantable device for stimulation of denervated muscles in rats,Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Medical Engineering & Physics 25, 239–253, 2

The project source file: PIC16F84-with-electronic-muscle-stimulation-cihazi.rar

electricity, motor, PIC16F84, project, tens circuit, Tip elektronigi,


320volt yazarları

Author: gevv

Published on 04.07.2008 Tens Electronic Muscle Stimulation Device Circuit with PIC16F84 total post 1780

Random Post

PCB Baskı devre yapımında bakır eritme perhidrol tuz ruhu kullanımı EXPKITS EX1-C (EX8L) İçin Grafik Lcd Kartı

Electronic Projects | 320volt.com Turkey in Turkey dealing with the development of IT and electronics to provide nice service to our people has been established to contribute to the development. | Infrastructure WordPress | simple electronic circuits | circuits archive